List of Publications

Publications in Scientific Journals

  1. R. K. Fathalla, W. Fröhner, C. D. Bader, P. D. Fischer, C. Dahlem, D. Chatterjee, S. Mathea, A. K. Kiemer, H. Arthanari, R. Müller, M. Abdel-Halim, C. Ducho, M. Engel; Identification and Biochemical Characterization of Pyrrolidinediones as Novel Inhibitors of the Bacterial Enzyme MurA; J. Med. Chem. 2022, articles ASAP. (DOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.2c01275)
  2. C. Rohrbacher, R. Zscherp, S. C. Weck, P. Klahn, C. Ducho; Synthesis of an Antimicrobial Enterobactin-Muraymycin Conjugate for Improved Activity against Gram-negative Bacteria; Chem. Eur. J. 2022, accepted article. (DOI: 10.1002/chem.202202408)
  3. A. Alhayek, E. S. Khan, E. Schönauer, T. Däinghaus, R. Shafiei, K. Voos, M. K. L. Han, C. Ducho, G. Posselt, S. Wessler, H. Brandstetter, J. Haupenthal, A. del Campo, A. K. H. Hirsch; Inhibition of Collagenase Q1 of Bacillus cereus as a Novel Antivirulence Strategy for the Treatment of Skin Wound Infections; Adv. Therap. 2022, 2100222.
  4. Z. Cui, H. Nguyen, M. Bhardwaj, X. Wang, M. Büschleb, A. Lemke, C. Schütz, C. Rohrbacher, P. Junghanns, S. Koppermann, C. Ducho, J. S. Thorson, S. G. Van Lanen; Enzymatic Cβ-H Functionalization of L-Arg and L-Leu in Nonribosomally Derived Peptidyl Natural Products: A Tale of Two Oxidoreductases; J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2021, 143, 19425-19437.
  5. S. Yahiaoui, K. Voos, J. Haupenthal, T. Wichelhaus, D. Frank, L. Weizel, M. Rotter, S. Brunst, J. S. Kramer, E. Proschak, C. Ducho, A. K. H. Hirsch; N-Aryl mercaptoacetamides as potential multi-target inhibitors of metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) and the virulence factor LasB from Pseudomonas aeruginosa; RSC Med. Chem. 2021, 12, 1698-1708.
  6. P. D. Fischer, E. Papadopoulos, J. M. Dempersmier, Z.-F. Wang, R. P. Nowak, K. A. Donovan, J. Kalabathula, C. Gorgulla, P. P. M. Junghanns, E. Kabha, N. Dimitrakakis, O. I. Petrov, C. Mitsiades, C. Ducho, V. Gelev, E. S. Fischer, G. Wagner, H. Arthanari; A biphenyl inhibitor of eIF4E targeting an internal binding site enables the design of cell-permeable PROTAC-degraders; Eur. J. Med. Chem. 2021, 219, 113435.
  7. K. Voos, E. Schönauer, A. Alhayek, J. Haupenthal, A. Andreas, R. Müller, R. W. Hartmann, H. Brandstetter, A. K. H. Hirsch, C. Ducho; Phosphonate as Stable Zinc-binding Group for Inhibitors of Clostridial Collagenase H (ColH) as Pathoblocker Agents; ChemMedChem 2021, 16, 1257-1267. (selected as ‚Very Important Paper (VIP)‘, Front Cover)
  8. M. Hawner, C. Ducho; Cellular Targeting of Oligonucleotides by Conjugation with Small Molecules; Molecules 2020, 25, 5963. (Review)
  9. G. Niro, S. C. Weck, C. Ducho; Merging Natural Products: Muraymycin-Sansanmycin Hybrid Structures as Novel Scaffold for Potential Antibacterial Agents; Chem. Eur. J. 2020, 26, 16875-16887.
  10. M. Wojtyniak, B. Schmidtgall, P. Kirsch, C. Ducho; Towards Zwitterionic Oligonucleotides with Improved Properties: the NAA/LNA‐Gapmer Approach; ChemBioChem 2020, 21, 3234-3243. (Cover Feature)
  11. Z. Cui, J. Overbay, X. Wang, X. Liu, Y. Zhang, M. Bhardwaj, A. Lemke, D. Wiegmann, G. Niro, J. S. Thorson, C. Ducho, S. G. Van Lanen; Pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-dependent alkyl transfer in nucleoside antibiotic biosynthesis; Nat. Chem. Biol. 2020, 16, 904-911.
  12. K. Leyerer, S. Koppermann, C. Ducho; Unexpected Seven-Membered Ring Formation for Muraymycin-Type Nucleoside-Peptide Antibiotics; Molbank 2020, 2020, M1122.
  13. A. Saady, M. Wojtyniak, E. Varon, V. Böttner, N. Kinor, Y. Shav-Tal, C. Ducho, B. Fischer; Specific, Sensitive, and Quantitative Detection of HER-2 mRNA Breast Cancer Marker by Fluorescent Light-Up Hybridization Probes; Bioconjugate Chem. 2020, 31, 1188-1198.
  14. A. Saady, N. Steinman, M. Wojtyniak, C. Ducho, B. Fischer; Synthesis of 2’‑deoxyuridine modified with 3,5-difluoro-4-methoxybenzylidene imidazolinone (DFMBI) derivative for incorporation into oligonucleotide probes for detection of HER2 breast cancer marker; Curr. Protoc. Nucleic Acid Chem. 2020, 80, e104.
  15. A. Heib, G. Niro, S. Weck, S. Koppermann, C. Ducho; Muraymycin Nucleoside Antibiotics: Structure-Activity Relationship for Variations in the Nucleoside Unit; Molecules 2020, 25, 22.
  16. K. Leyerer, S. Koppermann, C. Ducho; Solid Phase-Supported Synthesis of Muraymycin Analogues; Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2019, 7420-7431. (Front Cover)
  17. A. Saady, V. Böttner, M. Meng, E. Varon, Y. Shav-Tal, C. Ducho, B. Fischer; An oligonucleotide probe incorporating the chromophore of green fluorescent protein is useful for the detection of HER-2 mRNA breast cancer marker; Eur. J. Med. Chem. 2019, 173, 99-106.
  18. R. Linder, C. Ducho; Unified Synthesis of Densely Functionalized Amino Acid Building Blocks for the Preparation of Caprazamycin Nucleoside Antibiotics; Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2019,1523-1534.
  19. D. Wiegmann, S. Koppermann, C. Ducho; Aminoribosylated Analogues of Muraymycin Nucleoside Antibiotics; Molecules 2018, 23, 3085.
  20. M. Meng, B. Schmidtgall, C. Ducho; Enhanced Stability of DNA Oligonucleotides with Partially Zwitterionic Backbone Structures in Biological Media; Molecules 2018, 23, 2941.
  21. A. P. Spork, S. Koppermann, S. Schier (née Wohnig), R. Linder, C. Ducho; Analogues of Muraymycin Nucleoside Antibiotics with Epimeric Uridine-Derived Core Structures; Molecules 2018, 23, 2868.
  22. Z. Cui, X. Liu, J. Overbay, W. Cai, X. Wang, A. Lemke, D. Wiegmann, G. Niro, J. S. Thorson, C. Ducho, S. G. Van Lanen; Enzymatic Synthesis of the Ribosylated Glycyl-Uridine Disaccharide Core of Peptidyl Nucleoside Antibiotics; J. Org. Chem. 2018, 83, 7239-7249.
  23. Z. Cui, X.-C. Wang, X. Liu, A. Lemke, S. Koppermann, C. Ducho, J. Rohr, J. S. Thorson, S. G. Van Lanen; Self-Resistance During Muraymycin Biosynthesis: A Complementary Nucleotidyltransferase and Phosphotransferase with Identical Modification Sites and Distinct Temporal Order; Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2018, 62, e00193-18.
  24. M. Meng, C. Ducho; Oligonucleotide analogues with cationic backbone linkages; Beilstein J. Org. Chem. 2018, 14, 1293-1308. (Review)
  25. Z. Cui, X. Wang, S. Koppermann, J. S. Thorson, C. Ducho, S. G. Van Lanen; Antibacterial Muraymycins from Mutant Strains of Streptomyces sp. NRRL 30471; J. Nat. Prod. 2018, 81, 942-948.
  26. L. Elsharkawy, R. El-Sakhawy, M. Abdel-Halim, K. Lee, G. Piazza, C. Ducho, R. W. Hartmann, A. Abadi; Design and Synthesis of Novel Annulated Thienopyrimidines as Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) Inhibitors; Arch. Pharm. Chem. Life Sci. 2018, 351, e1800018.
  27. S. Koppermann, Z. Cui, P. D. Fischer, X. Wang, J. Ludwig, J. S. Thorson, S. G. Van Lanen, C. Ducho; Insights into the Target Interaction of Naturally Occurring Muraymycin Nucleoside Antibiotics; ChemMedChem 2018, 13, 779-784. (Cover feature)
  28. Y. Huang, X. Liu, Z. Cui, D. Wiegmann, G. Niro, C. Ducho, Y. Song, Z. Yang, S. G. Van Lanen; Pyridoxal-5′-phosphate as an oxygenase cofactor: Discovery of a carboxamide-forming, α-amino acid monooxygenase-decarboxylase; Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2018, 115, 974-979.
  29. D. Wiegmann, A. P. Spork, G. Niro, C. Ducho; Ribosylation of an Acid-Labile Glycosyl Acceptor as a Potential Key Step for the Synthesis of Nucleoside Antibiotics; Synlett 2018, 29, 440-446.
  30. B. Schmidtgall, A. Kuepper, M. Meng, T. N. Grossmann, C. Ducho; Oligonucleotides with Cationic Backbone and Their Hybridization with DNA: Interplay of Base Pairing and Electrostatic Attraction; Chem. Eur. J. 2018, 24, 1544-1553. (selected as ‚Hot Paper‘)
  31. E. Schönauer, A. M. Kany, J. Haupenthal, K. Hüsecken, I. J. Hoppe, K. Voos, S. Yahiaoui, B. Elsässer, C. Ducho, H. Brandstetter, R. W. Hartmann; Discovery of a Potent Inhibitor Class with High Selectivity toward Clostridial Collagenases; J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2017, 139, 12696-12703.
  32. S. Wohnig, A. P. Spork, S. Koppermann, G. Mieskes, N. Gisch, R. Jahn, C. Ducho; Total Synthesis of Dansylated Park’s Nucleotide for High-Throughput MraY Assays; Chem. Eur. J. 2016, 22, 17813-17819.
  33. F. Gräf, B. Vukosavljevic, J.-P. Michel, M. Wirth, O. Ries, C. De Rossi, M. Windbergs, V. Rosilio, C. Ducho, S. Gordon, C.-M. Lehr; The bacterial cell envelope as delimiter of anti-infective bioavailability – An in vitro permeation model of the Gram-negative bacterial inner membrane; J. Controlled Release 2016, 243, 214-224.
  34. S. Koppermann, C. Ducho; Naturstoffe bei der Arbeit: strukturelle Einblicke in die Inhibition des bakteriellen Membranproteins MraY; Angew. Chem. 2016, 128, 11896-11898; Natural Products at Work: Structural Insights into Inhibition of the Bacterial Membrane Protein MraY; Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2016, 55, 11722-11724. (Highlight article)
  35. D. Wiegmann, S. Koppermann, M. Wirth, G. Niro, K. Leyerer, C. Ducho; Muraymycin nucleoside-peptide antibiotics: uridine-derived natural products as lead structures for the development of novel antibacterial agents; Beilstein J. Org. Chem. 2016, 12, 769-795. (Review)
  36. A. Lemke, C. Ducho; Synthesis of Deuterium-Labelled 3-Hydroxy-L-arginine: Comparative Studies on Different Protecting-Group Strategies; Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2016, 87-98.
  37. C. Ducho; Enzymatically Cleavable siRNA Prodrugs: a New Paradigm for the Intracellular Delivery of RNA-Based Therapeutics; ChemMedChem 2015, 10, 1625-1627. (Highlight article)
  38. W. Cai, A. Goswami, Z. Yang, X. Liu, K. D. Green, S. Barnard-Britson, S. Baba, M. Funabashi, K. Nonaka, M. Sunkara, A. J. Morris, A. P. Spork, C. Ducho, S. Garneau-Tsodikova, J. S. Thorson, S. G. Van Lanen; The Biosynthesis of Capuramycin-Type Antibiotics: Identification of the A-102395 Biosynthetic Gene Cluster, Mechanism of Self-Resistance, and Formation of Uridine-5′-Carboxamide; J. Biol. Chem. 2015, 290, 13710-13724.
  39. O. Ries, C. Carnarius, C. Steinem, C. Ducho; Membrane-interacting properties of the functionalised fatty acid moiety of muraymycin antibiotics; Med. Chem. Commun. 2015, 6, 879-886.
  40. B. Schmidtgall, C. Höbartner, C. Ducho; NAA-modified DNA oligonucleotides with zwitterionic backbones: stereoselective synthesis of A-T phosphoramidite building blocks; Beilstein J. Org. Chem. 2015, 11, 50-60.
  41. B. Schmidtgall, A. P. Spork, F. Wachowius, C. Höbartner, C. Ducho; Synthesis and properties of DNA oligonucleotides with a zwitterionic backbone structure; Chem. Commun. 2014, 50, 13742-13745.
  42. M. T. Rodolisa, A. Mihalyi, C. Ducho, K. Eitel, B. Gust, R. J. M. Goss, T. D. H. Bugg; Mechanism of action of the uridyl peptide antibiotics: an unexpected link to a protein-protein interaction site in translocase MraY; Chem. Commun. 2014, 50, 13023-13025.
  43. A. P. Spork, M. Büschleb, O. Ries, D. Wiegmann, S. Boettcher, A. Mihalyi, T. D. H. Bugg, C. Ducho; Lead Structures for New Antibacterials: Stereocontrolled Synthesis of a Bioactive Muraymycin Analogue; Chem. Eur. J. 2014, 20, 15292-15297.
  44. O. Ries, M. Büschleb, M. Granitzka, D. Stalke, C. Ducho; Amino acid motifs in natural products: synthesis of O-acylated derivatives of (2S,3S)-3-hydroxyleucine; Beilstein J. Org. Chem. 2014, 10, 1135-1142.
  45. M. Funabashi, S. Baba, T. Takatsu, M. Kizuka, Y. Ohata, M. Tanaka, K. Nonaka, A. P. Spork, C. Ducho, W.-C. L. Chen, S. G. Van Lanen; Structure-Based Gene Targeting Discovery of Sphaerimicin, a Bacterial Translocase I Inhibitor; Angew. Chem. 2013, 125, 11821-11825; Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2013, 52, 11607-11611.
  46. A. P. Spork, C. Ducho; Stereocontrolled Synthesis of 5′- and 6′-Epimeric Analogues of Muraymycin Nucleoside Antibiotics; Synlett 2013, 24, 343-346.
  47. W. Meiser, M. Buback, O. Ries, C. Ducho, A. Sidoruk; EPR-Study into cross-termination and fragmentation of the RAFT model system phenylethyl-phenylethyl dithiobenzoate; Macromol. Chem. Phys. 2013, 214, 924-933.
  48. O. Ries, M. Granitzka, D. Stalke, C. Ducho; Concise Synthesis and X-ray Crystal Structure of N-Benzyl-2-(pyrimidin-4′-ylamino)-thiazole-4-carboxamide (‚Thiazovivin‘), a Small-Molecule Tool for Stem Cell Research; Synth. Commun. 2013, 43, 2876-2882.
  49. R. B. Hamed, J. R. Gomez-Castellanos, L. Henry, C. Ducho, M. A. McDonough, C. J. Schofield; The enzymes of β-lactam biosynthesis; Nat. Prod. Rep. 2013, 30, 21-107. (Review, front cover)
  50. S. Barnard-Britson, X. Chi, K. Nonaka, A. P. Spork, N. Tibrewal, A. Goswami, P. Pahari, C. Ducho, J. Rohr, S. G. Van Lanen; Amalgamation of Nucleosides and Amino Acids in Antibiotic Biosynthesis: Discovery of an L-Threonine:Uridine-5′-Aldehyde Transaldolase; J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 18514-18517.
  51. M. Büschleb, M. Granitzka, D. Stalke, C. Ducho; A biomimetic domino reaction for the concise synthesis of capreomycidine and epicapreomycidine; Amino Acids 2012, 43, 2313-2328.
  52. R. B. Hamed, L. Henry, J. R. Gomez-Castellanos, J. Mecinović, C. Ducho, J. L. Sorensen, T. D. W. Claridge, C. J. Schofield; Crotonase Catalysis Enables Flexible Production of Functionalized Prolines and Carbapenams; J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 471-479.
  53. A. P. Spork, D. Wiegmann, M. Granitzka, D. Stalke, C. Ducho; Stereoselective Synthesis of Uridine-Derived Nucleosyl Amino Acids; J. Org. Chem. 2011, 76, 10083-10098.
  54. C. Ducho; Ein Kaleidoskop der zeitgenössischen Organischen Chemie: die 46ste Bürgenstock-Konferenz; Angew. Chem. 2011, 123, 6829-6832; A Kaleidoscope of Contemporary Organic Chemistry: the 46th Bürgenstock Conference; Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2011, 50, 6697-6700. (Meeting Review)
  55. O. Ries, A. Ochmann, C. Ducho; Synthesis of N-Alkyl-N-hydroxy-guanidines: A Comparative Study Using Different Protecting Group Strategies; Synthesis 2011, 2357-2368. (Feature Article)
  56. R. B. Hamed, J. R. Gomez-Castellanos, A. Thalhammer, D. Harding, C. Ducho, T. D. W. Claridge, C. J. Schofield; Stereoselective C-C bond formation catalysed by engineered carboxymethylproline synthases; Nat. Chem. 2011, 3, 365-371.
  57. C. Ducho; Konvergenz führt zum Erfolg: Totalsynthese des komplexen nicht-ribosomalen Peptids Polytheonamid B; Angew. Chem. 2010, 122, 5156-5158; Convergence Leads to Success: Total Synthesis of the Complex Nonribosomal Peptide Polytheonamide B; Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2010, 49, 5034-5036. (Highlight article)
  58. A. P. Spork, S. Koppermann, B. Dittrich, R. Herbst-Irmer, C. Ducho; Efficient synthesis of the core structure of muraymycin and caprazamycin nucleoside antibiotics based on a stereochemically revised sulfur ylide reaction; Tetrahedron: Asymmetry 2010, 21, 763-766.
  59. A. P. Spork, C. Ducho; Novel 5′-deoxy nucleosyl amino acid scaffolds for the synthesis of muraymycin analogues; Org. Biomol. Chem. 2010, 8, 2323-2326.
  60. R. B. Hamed, J. Mecinović, C. Ducho, T. D. W. Claridge, C. J. Schofield; Carboxymethylproline synthase catalysed syntheses of functionalised N-heterocycles; Chem. Commun. 2010, 46, 1413-1415.
  61. A. Lemke, M. Büschleb, C. Ducho; Concise synthesis of both diastereomers of 3-hydroxy-L-arginine; Tetrahedron 2010, 66, 208-214. (Front cover)
  62. A. P. Spork, S. Koppermann, C. Ducho; Improved Convergent Synthesis of 5′-epi-Analogues of Muraymycin Nucleoside Antibiotics; Synlett 2009, 2503-2507.
  63. C. Ducho, R. B. Hamed, E. T. Batchelar, J. L. Sorensen, B. Odell, C. J. Schofield; Synthesis of regio- and stereoselectively deuterium-labelled derivatives of L-glutamate semialdehyde for studies on carbapenem biosynthesis; Org. Biomol. Chem. 2009, 7, 2770-2779.
  64. C. Meier, N. Gisch, C. Ducho, J. Balzarini; CycloSaligenyl-di-d4TMP: Highly Loaded CycloSal-pronucleotides that Release Two Equivalents of Nucleotides and Leaving One Masking Unit; Antiviral Res. 2009, 82, A61.
  65. E. T. Batchelar, R. B. Hamed, C. Ducho, T. D. W. Claridge, M. J. Edelmann, B. Kessler, C. J. Schofield; Thioester Hydrolysis and C-C Bond Formation by Carboxymethylproline Synthase from the Crotonase Superfamily; Angew. Chem. 2008, 120, 9462-9465; Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2008, 47, 9322-9325.
  66. C. Ducho, U. Görbig, S. Jessel, N. Gisch, J. Balzarini, C. Meier; Bis-cycloSal-d4T-monophosphates: Drugs That Deliver Two Molecules of Bioactive Nucleotides; J. Med. Chem. 2007, 50, 1335-1346.
  67. C. Meier, C. Ducho, H. Jessen, D. Vukadinovic-Tenter, J. Balzarini; Second generation cycloSal-d4TMP pronucleotides bearing esterase-cleavable sites – the „trapping“-concept; Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2006, 197-206.
  68. C. Ducho, S. Jessel, N. Gisch, J. Balzarini, C. Meier; Novel cycloSal Nucleotides with Reduced Inhibitory Potency towards Human Butyrylcholinesterase; Nucleosides Nucleotides 2005, 24, 519-522.
  69. C. Meier, C. Ducho, H. Jessen, J. Balzarini; Esterase-cleavable cycloSal-pronucleotides – the trapping concept; Coll. Symp. Series 2005, 7, 105-113.
  70. C. Meier, C. Ducho, H. J. Jessen, J. Balzarini; Novel „lock-in“ modified cycloSal nucleotides (II): Application of the AM- and the POM-group; Antiviral Res. 2005, 65, A27.
  71. C. Meier, C. Ducho, U. Görbig, R. Esnouf, J. Balzarini; Interaction of cycloSal-Pronucleotides with Cholinesterases from Different Origins. A Structure-Activity Relationship; J. Med. Chem. 2004, 47, 2839-2852.
  72. C. Meier, C. Ducho, J. Balzarini; Are cholinesterases inhibited by cycloSal nucleotides?; Antiviral Res. 2004, 62, A85.
  73. C. Ducho, S. Wendicke, U. Görbig, J. Balzarini, C. Meier; 3,5-Di-(tert-butyl)-6-fluoro-cycloSal-d4TMP – a pronucleotide with a considerably improved masking group; Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2003, 4786-4791.
  74. C. Ducho, J. Balzarini, C. Meier; Non-inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase by cycloSal Nucleotides; Nucleosides Nucleotides 2003, 22, 841-843.
  75. C. Ducho, J. Balzarini, C. Meier; Interaction of Cholinesterases with cycloSal Nucleotides; Antiviral Res. 2003, 57, A54.
  76. C. Meier, J. Renze, C. Ducho, J. Balzarini; cycloSal-d4TMP Pronucleotides – Structural Variations, Mechanistic Insights and Antiviral Activity; Curr. Top. Med. Chem. 2002, 2, 1111-1121. (Review)
  77. C. Ducho, J. Balzarini, L. Naesens, E. De Clercq, C. Meier; Aryl-substituted and Benzo-annulated cycloSal-derivatives of 2′,3′-Dideoxy-2′,3′-didehydrothymidine Monophosphate – Correlation of Structure, Hydrolysis Properties and Anti-HIV Activity; Antiviral Chem. Chemother. 2002, 13, 129-141.
  78. J. Renze, M. Plath, C. Ducho, J. Balzarini, E. De Clercq, C. Meier; Benzyl-functionalized cycloSal-d4T Monophosphates; Nucleosides Nucleotides 2001, 20, 931-934.
  79. J. Renze, M. Plath, C. Ducho, J. Balzarini, E. De Clercq, C. Meier; Hydrolysis Behaviour of Benzyl-functionalized cycloSal-d4TMPs; Antiviral Res. 2001, 50, A47.


  1. C. Ducho, R. W. Hartmann, J. Haupenthal, A. K. H. Hirsch, A. Kany, C. Kaya, J. Konstantinovic, K. Voos, I. Walter, S. Yahiaoui, A. S. Abdelsamine, C. Schütz, R. Jumde, A. Kiefer; Synthesis of a-substituted mercaptoacetamides inhibiting Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence factor LasB treating bacterial infections; 2022, WO 2022043322.
  2. Isis Innovation, C. J. Schofield, R. B. Hamed, E. Batchelar, C. Ducho;   Methods for preparing substituted N-heterocyclic rings, especially trans-carboxymethyl-proline derivatives and analogs, via enzymatically carbon-carbon bond formation reaction in the presence of a crotonase superfamily protein or a homolog or variant for use in the synthesis of antibiotics; 2010, WO 2010046713.
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